Review the Case Studies below and answer the associated questions. Case Study #1 You are working in the ER caring for a 17-year-old child. The child presents in severe pain and complains of SOB. He Nursing Assignment Help


Review the Case Studies below and answer the associated questions.

Case Study #1   

You are working in the ER caring for a 17-year-old child. The child presents in severe pain and complains of SOB. He states that he is having a sickle cell crisis.

  1. Based on this information provided what is going on in this disease process?
  2. What additional assessment and diagnostics are a priority for this patient?
  3. Describe the potential treatment options, priorities of nursing care, and education that needs to be done for this family.

Case Study #2   

You are working in the ER caring for a 10-year-old child. The child presents with severe bone pain, fatigue, and a fever. The initial findings appear to be consistent with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  1. Based on this information provided what is going on in this disease process?
  2. What additional assessment and diagnostics are a priority for this patient?
  3. Describe the potential treatment options, priorities of nursing care, and education that needs to be done for this family.

Case Study #3   

You are working in the ER caring for a 9-year-old child. The child presents with extreme thirst and frequent urination.

  1. Based on these assessment findings what is going on and why?
  2. What additional assessment and diagnostics are a priority for this patient?
  3. Describe the potential treatment options, priorities of nursing care, and education that needs to be done for this family.

Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:
In this case, we will discuss three different scenarios that involve children presenting with various symptoms. Each case study requires an understanding of the disease process, further assessment and diagnostics, treatment options, nursing care priorities, and education for the families involved. It is important to provide evidence-based answers supported by appropriate citations and references in APA format.

Answer to Case Study #1:

1. Based on the information provided, the child is presenting with a sickle cell crisis. Sickle cell crisis is a complication of sickle cell disease, which is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal red blood cells. In a crisis, these abnormal cells can block blood vessels, leading to severe pain and other complications.

2. Additional assessment and diagnostics that are a priority for this patient include:
– Performing a complete blood count (CBC) to assess for anemia and the presence of sickle-shaped red blood cells.
– Assessment of oxygen saturation levels to evaluate for any respiratory distress.
– Monitoring vital signs, including heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature.
– Obtaining a detailed pain assessment to determine the intensity, location, and duration of pain.
– Assigning a pain scale to assess pain levels objectively.

3. Potential treatment options for sickle cell crisis include:
– Administering analgesics for pain relief, such as non-opioid medications (e.g., acetaminophen) or opioid medications (e.g., morphine).
– Providing intravenous fluids to maintain hydration and prevent complications.
– Supplementing with oxygen therapy if needed to improve oxygenation.
– Transfusing packed red blood cells in severe cases to improve oxygen delivery.
– Offering emotional support and reassurance to the child and their family.

Nursing care priorities for this patient include:
– Regularly reassessing pain levels and adjusting analgesic therapy accordingly.
– Monitoring vital signs, oxygenation, and clinical status.
– Educating the child and their family about sickle cell disease, including triggers for crisis and the importance of staying hydrated.
– Promoting comfort through proper positioning, warm compresses, and relaxation techniques if allowed.
– Collaborating with the healthcare team to ensure comprehensive care.

References:
1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2020). What is sickle cell disease? Retrieved from [insert reference link]
2. Wong, D. L., Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Perry, S. E. (2019). Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing (11th ed.). Elsevier.

Answer to Case Study #2:

1. Based on the information provided, the initial findings are consistent with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), which is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature lymphocytes, leading to bone pain, fatigue, and fever.

2. Additional assessment and diagnostics that are a priority for this patient include:
– Obtaining a complete medical history, including any previous illnesses, exposure to radiation or toxins, and family history of cancer.
– Conducting a physical examination, including a careful assessment of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.
– Performing a complete blood count (CBC) with differential to evaluate for abnormal levels of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
– Conducting a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and determine the subtype of leukemia.
– Performing lumbar puncture to assess for central nervous system involvement.

3. Potential treatment options for acute lymphocytic leukemia include:
– Chemotherapy, which may involve different drug combinations to induce remission and prevent relapse.
– Radiation therapy to specific areas of the body, such as the brain or spinal cord.
– Stem cell transplantation may be considered in specific cases.
– Targeted therapy and immunotherapy may be used in some instances.

Nursing care priorities for this patient include:
– Monitoring vital signs, laboratory results, and response to treatment.
– Administering prescribed medications, including chemotherapy and supportive medications.
– Managing symptoms, such as pain and fever, and providing comfort measures.
– Educating the child and their family about the nature of leukemia, treatment options, and potential side effects.
– Providing emotional support to the child and their family throughout the treatment process.

References:
1. American Cancer Society. (2021). Leukemia – Acute lymphocytic (ALL) in children. Retrieved from [insert reference link]
2. Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2019). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children (11th ed.). Elsevier.

Answer to Case Study #3:

1. Based on the presented assessment findings, the child is experiencing extreme thirst and frequent urination, which are classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus. The child may be exhibiting signs of hyperglycemia due to a lack of insulin production or insulin resistance.

2. Additional assessment and diagnostics that are a priority for this patient include:
– Measuring blood glucose levels to confirm hyperglycemia.
– Assessing ketone levels in urine or blood to evaluate for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
– Collecting a medical history to identify risk factors, such as a family history of diabetes or recent illness.
– Evaluating weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), as abnormalities can provide contextual information.
– Assessing the child’s hydration status and electrolyte levels.

3. Potential treatment options for diabetes mellitus include:
– Insulin therapy, which may involve multiple daily injections or the use of an insulin pump.
– Implementing a proper diet plan, including carbohydrate counting and balancing meals and snacks.
– Regular physical activity and exercise to help maintain blood glucose levels.
– Continuous glucose monitoring or self-monitoring of blood glucose levels.
– Diabetes education for the child and their family regarding self-care, medication administration, and potential complications.

Nursing care priorities for this patient include:
– Monitoring blood glucose levels regularly and adjusting insulin therapy as needed.
– Assisting the child and their family in developing a diabetes management plan, including diet and exercise guidelines.
– Educating the child and their family about diabetes, including signs and symptoms of hypo- and hyperglycemia.
– Providing emotional support and addressing any concerns or fears associated with the diagnosis.
– Collaborating with the healthcare team to develop a comprehensive care plan.

References:
1. American Diabetes Association. (2020). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care, 43(Suppl. 1), S14-S31. [insert DOI or reference link]
2. Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2019). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children (11th ed.). Elsevier.

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