NSG 600 Module I Discussion 2 Wilkes University

Struggling to meet your deadline? Get your work done on time by experts. Don’t wait – ORDER NOW!

Applying the Foundation of Knowledge Model provide examples from your clinical setting on knowledge acquisition, processing, generation, and dissemination.

Post your initial response by Wednesday at 11:59 PM EST. Respond to two students by Saturday at 11:59pm EST. The initial discussion post and discussion responses occur on three different calendar days of each electronic week. All responses should be a minimum of 300 words, scholarly written, APA formatted (with some exceptions due to limitations in the D2L editor), and referenced.  A minimum of 2 references are required (other than the course textbook). These are not the complete guidelines for participating in discussions. Please refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion found in the Course Resource module.

At my current job of Nurse Practitioner, I drive to meet my patients at their residences. These visits vary, as some are first time interactions with my patients , some are visits with patients I have seen in the past and necessitates maintenance . Some of the visits though are urgent and comprise of a patient with an acute problem that needs immediate assessment and intervention. While driving to those visits, I usually think about the disease process, their histories and possible diagnosis and interventions I would implement. Hence many times during those visits, I find myself driving long distances without even thinking . This is to state that different part of the brain controls our driving, and I could be driving from one point to another without thinking ,while abiding to all  traffic laws.

I do remember though my early driving years, when the latter was necessitating my full attention.

The same applies in my early nursing practice. When I first came to work on a nursing floor, I was still in my last semester at my nursing school and had been accepted for a nurse internship program in a hospital in the Bronx.

As a novice nurse on the floor, I was assigned to follow my preceptor and for the latter to teach me how to become a good nurse.

I remember my first weeks where I would get daily nonstop teachings from my preceptor. Those days were the hardest for me. My preceptor was an excellent nurse and would give me information after information for the whole day. The  small tasks which my preceptor asked me to perform,I would fail to accomplish again and again. Other nurses would also try to teach me about small skills when they find me by myself. Nevertheless, English not being my first language, every task needed an extra explanation.  That was my time of knowledge processing where bits and pieces of information were thrown to my direction, and it was my duty to assimilate as much of the information as possible. Those were the hardest weeks in my nursing practice. I even remember while reflecting I might not even be able to survive on the floor after graduation. I could not understand why, despite my great success in nursing school, it was so hard for me assimilate all the information that was being provided for me. Some studies do show that adding simulation to the actual teaching on the floor Is beneficial and students do respond positively in greater knowledge acquisition in these hybrid teachings (Olausson et al., 2022).

Knowledge processing part for me came late in my training, towards the end of my internship when I slowly started having routines and crafting the latter day by day. That involved focusing on specific nursing tasks. For instance, I would focus solely on newly admitted patients.As it was easier for me to understand the whole process starting from admission.

Slowly as I got more and more comfortable on those routines, I slowly started understanding the process and this time instead of mechanically performing a routine, I would know why I was performing a specific task and carving my practice day by day, hence, generating my own knowledge. Now late in my practice, while reflecting, I understand that my cultural background may be the source in my tumultuous first days on a nursing floor. As cultural background plays a big role on how efficiently nursing knowledge is acquired (Burns et al., 2020). As an immigrant, I had to integrate my cultural background in my acquisition of nursing knowledge.

Nursing dissemination came slowly as I was able now not only to perform my nursing skill but also teach with confidence to my patients and clearly explain why they were undergoing different test, why I was performing different skills and also providing them with different knowledge that I deemed important for them to know after discharge.

The daily reflections, the feedback from coworkers and patients comprise my knowledge acquisition throughout the process. When I see myself now teaching nursing students on the floor and helping new nurses, I really give thanks to all those colleagues in healthcare whose positive feedback made me the nurse that I am today.


-Burns, M., Bally, J., Burles, M., Holtslander, L., & Peacock, S. (2020). Influences of the culture of science on nursing knowledge development: Using conceptual frameworks as nursing philosophy in critical care nursing. Nursing Philosophy. https://doi.org/10.1111/nup.12310

‌-Olaussen, C., Steindal, S. A., Jelsness-Jørgensen, L.-P., Aase, I., Stenseth, H. V., & Tvedt, C. R. (2022). Integrating simulation training during clinical practice in nursing homes: an experimental study of nursing students’ knowledge acquisition, self-efficacy and learning needs. BMC Nursing21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-022-00824-2

The Foundation of Knowledge model provides clear demonstration how the use of knowledge can be combined with data to develop expanded knowledge that can improve the healthcare delivery system (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2021). Foundational knowledge is the first knowledge that is used to build new knowledge. It can come in the form of knowing how to solve a problem and having basic skills, such as the ability to think critically. It also includes the field-specific knowledge that comes from schooling and working in a certain field. Foundational knowledge is made up of the facts, theories, principles, methods, skills, terminology, and ways of thinking that are necessary for more advanced or independent learning (Makhene, 2022). As members of the healthcare workforce, nurses are users and consumers of the various advancements that have been made in healthcare everyday (Ang, 2019).

A simple example of knowledge application in my clinical practice dates to being a new nurse using a new medication. In the facility I was working for there was a new medication that was going to be given in large quantities to specific group of patients. The medication was reconstituted and had large volume to be administered intramuscularly. Following the manufacturers recommendations of preparation and administration I encountered clogged needles and negative injection site reactions. After giving the injection and having many complications, I began experimenting with the reconstitution of the drug and was able to find a way to greatly reduce injection site reactions and clogged needles. As I gained the knowledge, I was able to share this preparation technique with my peers and reduce other negative reactions. Using knowledge acquisition, I was able to collect data that provided the possible reason for the negative reactions. While assessing the data and applying knowledge generation I was able to work towards a solution to the identified problem. This information was then able to them be shared and processed with other healthcare workers using knowledge dissemination and processing.

Critical thinking is one of the most basic processes that is taught early in the nursing profession by using the capacity to evaluate information and to make informed judgments based on such information. This is a basic form of knowledge application. Information may be improved via the use of trainings and nursing education that emphasize the need of considering foundational knowledge as a base for the development of critical thinking during teaching and learning (Makhene, 2022).


Ang, R. (2019). Use of content management systems to address nursing workflow. International Journal of Nursing Sciences6(4), 454–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2019.09.012

Makhene, A. (2022). Use of foundational knowledge as a basis to facilitate critical thinking: Nurse educators’ perceptions. Nursing Research and Practice2022, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3736322

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). In (Ed.), Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

The focus of this discussion is based upon application of the Foundation of Knowledge Model in the Practical Nursing educational program, In this setting, knowledge is constantly being learned and is applied daily.   For example, as students are enrolled in the PN program for two years, they learn new information, and continue to build more knowledge.  According to Makhene (2022), students gain and add to their foundational knowledge by learning new terminology, nursing skills, as well as implementation of different nursing theorist theories. For example, a student in the first year of nursing school learns to give a bed bath, and perform a head-to-toe assessment, where as a student in the senior year is able to put all of the pieces of what they learned and build upon the skill and will be able to recognize any abnormalities with their patient, and report to the RN or Physician.

An example of knowledge acquisition from the nursing education standpoint is applied when the instructor creates weekly lesson plans based off of previous lectures. For example, if the students learned about the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system one week, the next lesson would include the physiology and how muscles work together, therefore allowing the student to process the new knowledge learned. According to Mastrian and McGonigle (2021), knowledge acquisition is defined as the process of further processing and generating knowledge.

Application of the concept of Knowledge processing is defined as being able to recognize or expanding the knowledge base (Mastrian & McGonigle, 2021). Again, going back to the example of the students who are learning about the anatomy and physiology system, they are expanding their knowledge with each lesson that is introduced, and are able to process information learned, and add to their knowledge base.

Continuing on with the knowledge model, the students are able to implement knowledge processing with past experiences, as well as any new information that is learned. Mastrian and McGonigle  ( 2021), write that knowledge generation and dissemination are an integral part of processing knowledge, and as the student nurse continues to learn new information, that they are continually processing. As students continue to grow in the educational knowledge, the nursing education is focused on preparing the students to be able to become critical thinkers. In conclusion, using the Foundational Knowledge Model can help nursing students build upon knowledge base, as well as develop a level of critical thinking so they are able to provide safe care to all patients (Makhene, 2022 ).


Makhene A. (2022). Use of Foundational Knowledge as a Basis to Facilitate Critical Thinking: Nurse Educators’ Perceptions. Nursing research and practice2022, 3736322. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3736322

Mastrian, K., & McGonigle, D. (2021). Informatics, Disciplinary Science, and the Foundation of Knowledge. In K. Mastrian & D. McGonigle (Eds). Informatics for healthcare professionals (2nd ed, pp. 5-18).  Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Struggling to meet your deadline? Get your work done on time by experts. Don’t wait – ORDER NOW!

Order Now! Order Now!