NR 439 Week 1 Discussion: Introduction To Evidence-based Practice (graded)

NR 439 Week 1 Discussion: Introduction to Evidence-based Practice (graded)

NR 439 Week 1 Discussion: Introduction to Evidence-based Practice (graded)

This discussion has 3 questions.  I encourage you to not wait until the last minute to post your discussion…Frequently I will respond with a reminder that you didn’t answer part of the question, or that you answered part of the question incorrectly, and I want you to be able to take advantage of that feedback.

Also, remember that to earn maximum points, you have to integrate an outside scholarly source into at least one of your 2 discussion posts for the week.  The optional readings are NOT considered an outside source.

For the third question, you need to “Describe one past/historical unethical breach of research conduct”  Please be sure this is related to research conduct, not potential unethical conduct in a clinical situation.  Also, you need to “share how you would ensure care of a study participant using one ethical or legal research consideration”.  Again – this is related to research situations, not clinical situations.  You need to describe how you would ensure care of a study participant, not a patient.

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I’m looking forward to reading your first discussions this week!  You may post for credit beginning Sunday, February 28.

Thanks for sending me the link. I have watched many Unit 731 documentaries. It is very difficult for me to watch these dreadful events had happened in Unit 731: The Japanese researchers studied STDs. They forced prisoners who were infected with syphilis to have sex with healthy ones to see how it spread. They carried out a vivisection, a dissection of a live human without anesthetics, to see blood loss. They infected the prisoners with diseases, then removed the prisoner’s organs while they were alive, so that the researchers could study the effects of the disease before the decomposition could start (Avani, 2018). They conducted an experiment on prisoners, frozen their arms stiff with ice, then put the frozen stiff arms into a vat of hot water. The flesh wound would be stripped off the bones, but the prisoner still alive. Women were raped and injected with disease to study transfer to fetus. A shocking photo found in archives show a Chinese woman was cut open from throat to pelvis, exposing a fully-grown baby in her belly……

Despite thousands of victims, the Japanese government denied the existence of the Unit 731 until 1998. The U.S. used double standard in the postwar responses to the experiments upon different nationalities. The Unit 731 scientists were given immunity from prosecution, and their dehumanized acts were coved-up in exchange for exclusive access to their finding (Brody, et al., 2015).  

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I still need to have a deeper understanding of the atrocities. But one thing I firmly believe that all humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. We ought to respect this moral principle at all the time (Human Rights).  


Avani, S., (2018) Unit 731: Japan’s Biological warfare project. to an external site.

Brody, H., Leonard, S. E., & Weindling, P., (2015). United Stated responses to Japanese wartime inhuman experimentation after World War II: National security and wartime exigency. to an external site.

Human Rights. to an external site.

Thank you, Fiorenzo, for your post and for sharing the discussion question. I agree with you that nursing research’s evolution since the Nightingale era has necessitated advancements in the nursing practice and profession for better services to patients. Accordingly, through the systematic process of inquiry that employs rigorous guidelines to produce unbiased answers to nursing practice questions, research remains a critical aspect of effective care delivery. Over 150 years ago, Nightingale pioneered nursing research to understand the effects of the Crimean War on the mortality and morbidity of soldiers at the time (Grove & Gray, 2018). The data gathered by Nightingale transformed nursing research as it led to the development of interest by professionals in practice. Nightingale succeeded in impacting fundamental nursing practice changes and care as it is known today and public health in general. 

With time, nursing research transformed because of different factors that included increased understanding to focus on the patient. Early researchers looked at ways to improve quality care delivery amidst lack of access to vital technology at disposal today. Research in nursing would pick in the 1950s, where efforts to apply science in nursing were advanced for better outcomes. Nursing education did not exist, and in most cases, nurse practitioners learned through apprenticeship programs. However, due to increased nursing education research, the need to train nurses as professionals led to the establishment of nursing schools in different parts of the country (Grove & Gray, 2018). Present research in nursing focuses on enhancing patient-centred care approaches using evidence-based practice. Nurses now can specialize in research through terminal degrees like a doctor of philosophy in nursing (PhD). The implication is that research in nursing is critical in providing quality care. 


Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding Nursing Research E-Book: Building an 

Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

I was skeptical about the vaccine as well….and in truth, I am still skeptical even though I am fully vaccinated (I had the first shot at the end of December and the 2nd shot mid January).  I have been tested several times over (both swab and antibody tests) and by the Good Graces, I have not contracted the virus.  However, I still chose to get the vaccine anyway because my 75yr old mother lives with me and my brother is severely immunocompromised – and I’m around both of them ALL THE TIME.  With my potential exposure to covid positive patients at the hospital, I would feel so guilty if I was one of those asymptomatic people that unknowingly contracted the virus and then passed it on to my loved ones. 

That being said, after receiving both vaccines, and seeing how I reacted to it vs. seeing how others have reacted to the vaccines or actual contraction of the virus (or a combination of the two), I wholeheartedly believe that I would have been one of those asymptomatic people.  I had absolutely no reaction to the vaccine whatsoever.  Some of my coworkers who never had covid had a bad reaction to the 2nd dose…and my coworkers that had covid and then received the first vaccine said they felt like they had covid all over again (they had no reaction with the 2nd shot).  So I truly believe I would have been one of those people “spreading the love” without knowing. 

My family (husband, mom, brothers, sisters-in-law, and nieces) have said they will not receive the vaccine and I respect their wishes not to.  But for my peace of mind, I wanted to make sure I was doing my part to protect them from exposure despite my own reservations of the escalation for the research and the vaccine.     

I enjoyed your post very informative. I also wonder if there will be long term effects of the Covid-19 vaccine as it was released very fast. I myself have not received as am breast-feeding and the implications of the side effects on breastfeeding were not held. I do think their will be any long term effects, if anything history has shown us is that vaccines have helped the vast majority. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccinations are mRNA vaccines, which is nothing new scientist have been working how to modify mRNA. All viruses contain nucleic acids in the form of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or  Ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA, RNA, and proteins are essential for existence. DNA carries all genetic information for cell growth and replication. RNA copies the DNA and thus regulates the expression of  genes in form of Messenger Ribonucleuic acid mRNA  which carries the genetic code from DNA from the cell’s nucleus to ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs. Proteins repair parts of the body and allows metabolic reactions to occur. Medications and vaccines that utilizes mRNA cause our cells to make a protein or specific piece of protein that triggers an immune response that creates antibodies and produces killer cells. So with this scientist just build on it based on the virus they are trying to target.

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