Article Review: The Impact of Family Presence During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Patient Outcomes and Family Trauma


Introduction

The research article is to answer a question about how many people die due to cardiac attacks per year and how the affected family members relate. What are the effects on the patient when family members are inside the bedside of the affected? And the study also is to know the trauma the family members of the affected have to pass through during the resuscitation process. The prevalence is that 436,000 people die from cardiac arrest almost every year; by ninety per cent of that, incidents are vital.

This research will help in both the health care services and the society. In health care, the results may change how the health care services are services. Be the services will be better to make those who need the services feel more comfortable. In society, this research would help reduce trauma and stress from families or how to handle those effects among family members.

Search strategy

The databases used for the research were mostly the family members of the affected people who attended the hospital during resuscitation. Keywords used in the research strategy were resuscitation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; nurse; attitude; hospital, emergency service, cardiac arrest, post-traumatic stress, depression, prolonged grief, patient involvement, social support terms CPR, Family Presence, Nursing, Stages of Grief. Inclusion was articles published in English, and within the past five years, adult patients who suffered from cardiac arrest, a hospital setting where CPR was contacted interviewed bereaving families. Articles not within five years were excluded, and papers questioned cardiac arrest survivors. Articles which were not written in English were also excluded.

Presentation of evidence

Some articles directly addressed the research mentioned above question. One of the articles written by Al Bshabshe, Al Atif, Bahis, Asiri, Asseri, Hummadi, Al-Omari, Almahdi, & Malik called “physicians characteristics associated with Their Attitude to Family Presence during Adult Cardiopulmonary” the article answers how the services to cardiac arrest patients were contacted when they were around and when they were not around.

The article interviews the affected cardiac arrest patients on how the physicians behave when their family members are around and when they are not. The results show that physicians sometimes have different characteristics when their family members are around than when they are not. This will automatically help the health centres how to improve their service provision.

Another article about the abovementioned question is called “Perceptions of Adult Hospitalized Patients on Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation”. This article interviews patients with cardiac arrest on how they feel when their family members are around during the resuscitation process. The results show that most patients think relieved when a family member occurs during the process. Having a family member around during the process is important—(Bradley, Keithline, Petrocelli, Scanlon, & Parkosewich, (2017).

The third article addressing the same is “Griefreactions about professional and social support among family members of persons who died from sudden cardiac arrest” This article takes in the interviewing of the family members of the persons who died of cardiac. The research results show how people are affected mentally, as many people say they are always traumatized when they remember their person dying of cardiac arrest. (Carlsson, Alvariza, Axelsson, Bremer, & Årestedt, 2022).

The fourth article is “Factors associated with symptoms of prolonged grief among bereaved family members of persons who died from sudden cardiac arrest”. This article shows the results obtained after interviewing family members where their person died of cardiac arrest. Many people say that they always have traumas, anxiety, stress and depression due to the person’s death. The healthcare services should include aftermath services to the families of those who are affected. (Carlsson, Arestedt, Alvariza, Axelsson, & Bremer, (2021).

The fifth article addressing the same issues is “Family Presence during Resuscitation”,: written by Hassankhani, Zamanzadeh, Rahmani, Haririan, & Porter, J. E. (2017). After interviewing several cardia arrest persons, the article gives statistical data on what happens when their family members are present in the resuscitation process. It is found that many cardiac arrest patients do better when their family members are around them during the process. This may be because the services are well delivered when the family members are around.

Another article addressing the same is “Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.” This article includes the interview of several family members and the patients. It shows that it is important for family members to be available during the resuscitation process. This is because services are well offered when the family is around rather than when the family is not. (Jabre, Belpomme, Azoulay, Jacob, Bertrand, Lapostolle, Tazarourte, Bouilleau, Pinaud, Broche, Normand, Baubet, Ricard-Hibon, Istria, Beltrami, Alheritiere, Assez, Nace, Vivien, Adnet,(2013).

The seventh article is “Preferences of Patients’ Family regarding family-witnessed cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A qualitative perspective of intensive care patients’ family members.” This article involves interviewing patients suffering from cardiac arrest about how they feel during the resuscitation process. The results show that it is important for family members to be around during the process. This is because the nurses or the people in control tend to do it better to save a life than when the family members are not around. (Sak-Dankosky, Andruszkiewicz, Sherwood, & Kvist, (2019).

The last but not the least article is “Family experiences and health outcomes following a loved one’s hospital discharge or death after cardiac arrest: A scoping Review.” This article interviews the loved ones of a person who is discharged or is dead due to cardiac arrest in a hospital. The loved ones say that it is not easy to accept that their person has died and they were in intensive care. So they prefer it when they go around the hospital or health Centre to know how the process went. (Rojas, Deforge, Abukhadra, Farrell, George, & Agarwal, (2023).

Critical appraisal of the evidence

The current state of knowledge about this research is that during resuscitation, family members or loved ones need to be around the patient. This is seen to improve the services provided by the healthcare. This also may prevent the patient’s death; hence the services may be suitable for the cardiac arrest patient.

We also need to know what else can be done to better the resuscitation process if, for example, there are no loved ones to cater for that. It is important to have other criteria to better the services if no loved ones are around the place to ensure better services. There are also some strengths and weaknesses of the studies we need to know. For example, the interviews to get the research results seem biased. Why are only patients interviewed and survivors not interviewed? It is important to understand both sides of the story.

Implication of practice

These research results help practitioners to know how to improve their services to better the lives of patients with cardiac arrest. It also allows clinicians to find good and better machines for the cardiopulmonary resuscitation process. The results also show how the family and loved ones are affected by the death of the patients. There is a need for aftermath services to make the family members feel better and avoid anxiety, depression and stress.

Reference

Al bhabhi, A. A., Al Atif, M. Y., Bahis, M. A., Asiri, A. M., Asseri, A. M., Hummadi, A. A., Al-omari, A., Almahdi, Y. M., & Malik, A. R. (2020). Physicians’ Characteristics Associated with Their Attitude to Family Presence during Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Biomed Res Int, 2020, 4634737–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4634737

Bradley, C., Keithline, M., Petrocelli, M., Scanlon, M., & Parkosewich, J. (2017).Perceptions of Adult Hospitalized Patients on Family Presence During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Am J Crit Care, 26(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2017550

Carlsson, N., Alvariza, A., Axelsson, L., Bremer, A., & Årestedt, K. (2022). Grief reactions in relation to professional and social support among family members of persons who died from sudden cardiac arrest: A longitudinal survey study. Resuscitation Plus, 12, 100318–100318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resplu.2022.100318

Carlsson, N., Arestedt, K., Alvariza, A., Axelsson, L., & Bremer, A. (2021). Factors associated with symptoms of prolonged grief among bereaved family members of persons who died from sudden cardiac arrest. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: Journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology, 20(Supplement_1). https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjcn/zvab060.088

Hassankhani, H., Zamanzadeh, V., Rahmani, A., Haririan, H., & Porter, J. E. (2017).Family Presence During Resuscitation: A Double‐Edged Sword. J Nurs Scholarsh,49(2), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12273

Jabre, P., Belpomme, V., Azoulay, E., Jacob, L., Bertrand, L., Lapostolle, F., Tazarourte, K., Bouilleau, G., Pinaud, V., Broche, C., Normand, D., Baubet, T., Ricard-Hibon, A., Istria, J., Beltramini, A., Alheritiere, A., Assez, N., Nace, L., Vivien, B., … Adnet, F. (2013). Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. N Engl J Med, 368(11), 1008–1018. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203366

Rojas, D. A., Deforge, C. E., Abukhadra, S. L., Farrell, L., George, M., & Agarwal, S. (2023). Family experiences and health outcomes following a loved ones’ hospital discharge or death after cardiac arrest: A scoping review. Resusc Plus, 14, 100370–100370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resplu.2023.100370

Sak-Dankosky, N., Andruszkiewicz, P., Sherwood, P. R., & Kvist, T. (2019). Preferences of patients’ family regarding family-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A qualitative perspective of intensive care patients’ family members. Intensive Crit Care Nurs, 50, 95–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2018.04.001

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